cmd2 has a built-in plugin framework which allows developers to create a
cmd2 plugin which can extend basic
cmd2 functionality and can be
used by multiple applications.
There are many ways to add functionality to
cmd2 using a plugin. Most
plugins will be implemented as a mixin. A mixin is a class that encapsulates
and injects code into another class. Developers who use a plugin in their
cmd2 project will inject the plugin’s code into their subclass of
Mixin and Initialization¶
The following short example shows how to mix in a plugin and how the plugin gets initialized.
Here’s the plugin:
class MyPlugin: def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # code placed here runs before cmd2.Cmd initializes super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # code placed here runs after cmd2.Cmd initializes
and an example app which uses the plugin:
import cmd2 import cmd2_myplugin class Example(cmd2_myplugin.MyPlugin, cmd2.Cmd): """An class to show how to use a plugin""" def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # code placed here runs before cmd2.Cmd or # any plugins initialize super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # code placed here runs after cmd2.Cmd and # all plugins have initialized
Note how the plugin must be inherited (or mixed in) before
This is required for two reasons:
cmd.Cmd.__init__method in the python standard library does not call
super().__init__(). Because of this oversight, if you don’t inherit from
MyPlugin.__init__()method will never be called.
- You may want your plugin to be able to override methods from
cmd2.Cmd. If you mixin the plugin after
cmd2.Cmd, the python method resolution order will call
cmd2.Cmdmethods before it calls those in your plugin.
Your plugin can add user visible commands. You do it the same way in a plugin
that you would in a
class MyPlugin: def do_say(self, statement): """Simple say command""" self.poutput(statement)
You have all the same capabilities within the plugin that you do inside a
cmd2.Cmd app, including argument parsing via decorators and custom
Add (or hide) settings¶
A plugin may add user controllable settings to the application. Here’s an example:
class MyPlugin: def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # code placed here runs before cmd2.Cmd initializes super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # code placed here runs after cmd2.Cmd initializes self.mysetting = 'somevalue' self.add_settable(cmd2.Settable('mysetting', str, 'short help message for mysetting', self))
You can hide settings from the user by calling
remove_settable(). See Settings for
Your plugin can provide a decorator which users of your plugin can use to wrap functionality around their own commands.
Your plugin can override core
cmd2.Cmd methods, changing their
behavior. This approach should be used sparingly, because it is very brittle.
If a developer chooses to use multiple plugins in their application, and
several of the plugins override the same method, only the first plugin to be
mixed in will have the overridden method called.
Hooks are a much better approach.
Plugins can register hook methods, which are called by
during various points in the application and command processing lifecycle.
Plugins should not override any of the deprecated hook methods, instead they
should register their hooks as described in the Hooks
You should name your hooks so that they begin with the name of your plugin.
Hook methods get mixed into the
cmd2 application and this naming
convention helps avoid unintentional method overriding.
Here’s a simple example:
class MyPlugin: def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # code placed here runs before cmd2 initializes super().__init__(*args, **kwargs) # code placed here runs after cmd2 initializes # this is where you register any hook functions self.register_postparsing_hook(self.cmd2_myplugin_postparsing_hook) def cmd2_myplugin_postparsing_hook(self, data: cmd2.plugin.PostparsingData) -> cmd2.plugin.PostparsingData: """Method to be called after parsing user input, but before running the command""" self.poutput('in postparsing_hook') return data
Registration allows multiple plugins (or even the application itself) to each inject code to be called during the application or command processing lifecycle.
See the Hooks documentation for full details of the application and command lifecycle, including all available hooks and the ways hooks can influence the lifecycle.
Classes and Functions¶
Your plugin can also provide classes and functions which can be used by
cmd2 based applications. Describe these classes and
functions in your documentation so users of your plugin will know what’s
See https://github.com/python-cmd2/cmd2-plugin-template for more info.