Embedded Python Shells

The py command will run its arguments as a Python command. Entered without arguments, it enters an interactive Python session. The session can call “back” to your application through the name defined in self.pyscript_name (defaults to app). This wrapper provides access to execute commands in your cmd2 application while maintaining isolation.

You may optionally enable full access to to your application by setting locals_in_py to True. Enabling this flag adds self to the python session, which is a reference to your Cmd2 application. This can be useful for debugging your application. To prevent users from enabling this ability manually you’ll need to remove locals_in_py from the settable dictionary.

The app object (or your custom name) provides access to application commands through raw commands. For example, any application command call be called with app("<command>").

>>> app('say --piglatin Blah')

More Python examples:

(Cmd) py print("-".join("spelling"))
(Cmd) py
Python 3.5.3 (default, Jan 19 2017, 14:11:04)
[GCC 6.3.0 20170118] on linux
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.

End with `Ctrl-D` (Unix) / `Ctrl-Z` (Windows), `quit()`, `exit()`.
Non-python commands can be issued with: app("your command")
Run python code from external script files with: run("script.py")

>>> import os
>>> os.uname()
('Linux', 'eee', '2.6.31-19-generic', '#56-Ubuntu SMP Thu Jan 28 01:26:53 UTC 2010', 'i686')
>>> app("say --piglatin {os}".format(os=os.uname()[0]))
>>> self.prompt
'(Cmd) '
>>> self.prompt = 'Python was here > '
>>> quit()
Python was here >

Using the py command is tightly integrated with your main cmd2 application and any variables created or changed will persist for the life of the application:

(Cmd) py x = 5
(Cmd) py print(x)

The py command also allows you to run Python scripts via py run('myscript.py'). This provides a more complicated and more powerful scripting capability than that provided by the simple text file scripts discussed in Scripting. Python scripts can include conditional control flow logic. See the python_scripting.py cmd2 application and the script_conditional.py script in the examples source code directory for an example of how to achieve this in your own applications.

Using py to run scripts directly is considered deprecated. The newer run_pyscript command is superior for doing this in two primary ways:

  • it supports tab-completion of file system paths
  • it has the ability to pass command-line arguments to the scripts invoked

There are no disadvantages to using run_pyscript as opposed to py run(). A simple example of using run_pyscript is shown below along with the arg_printer script:

(Cmd) run_pyscript examples/scripts/arg_printer.py foo bar baz
Running Python script 'arg_printer.py' which was called with 3 arguments
arg 1: 'foo'
arg 2: 'bar'
arg 3: 'baz'


If you want to be able to pass arguments with spaces to commands, then we strongly recommend using one of the decorators, such as with_argument_list. cmd2 will pass your do_* methods a list of arguments in this case.

When using this decorator, you can then put arguments in quotes like so:

$ examples/arg_print.py
(Cmd) lprint foo "bar baz"
lprint was called with the following list of arguments: ['foo', 'bar baz']

IPython (optional)

If IPython is installed on the system and the cmd2.Cmd class is instantiated with use_ipython=True, then the optional ipy command will be present:

from cmd2 import Cmd
class App(Cmd):
    def __init__(self):
        Cmd.__init__(self, use_ipython=True)

The ipy command enters an interactive IPython session. Similar to an interactive Python session, this shell can access your application instance via self and any changes to your application made via self will persist. However, any local or global variable created within the ipy shell will not persist. Within the ipy shell, you cannot call “back” to your application with cmd(""), however you can run commands directly like so:


IPython provides many advantages, including:

  • Comprehensive object introspection
  • Get help on objects with ?
  • Extensible tab completion, with support by default for completion of python variables and keywords
  • Good built-in ipdb debugger

The object introspection and tab completion make IPython particularly efficient for debugging as well as for interactive experimentation and data analysis.